Pārājika 1. Methuna-dhamma
Yo pana bhikkhu
|If any bhikkhu
|(regarding the) bhikkhus’ training-&-livelihood-undertaking
|the training, not having rejected (it)
|[his] in-capability: not openly disclosed
methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya,
|(the) sexual-intercourse act, having-engaged (in that),
|even (with just a) female animal,
|disqualified (he) is,
|not in communion.
word by word gloss from nyanatusita draft
If any bhikkhu [who] has entered upon the training and livelihood for bhikkhus, not having rejected the
training, not having disclosed [his] incapability, should engage in the act of sexual intercourse, even with
just a female animal, he is disqualified, not in communion.
methunadhammasikkhápadaí: the training precept on the act of sexual intercourse; nom. sg. nt. = Label
use of the nominative; see Syntax § 22–23. An appositive kammadháraya cpd: “the act of sexual intercourse
training precept,” see note on cìvaravagga at NP 10, or a locative tappurisa, as it has been translated here. =
methunadhamma: act of sexual intercourse; gen. tapp. cpd.
consisting of methuna: sexual intercourse, see below, and dhamma: act; see below + sikkhápada: training
precept, training guideline, training rule, rule, precept, code of training; gen. tapp. cpd.; lit. guideline for
training. = sikkhá: training; see below + pada: precept, guideline, rule, item, constituent, part, way.
As mentioned in the chapter on the “Titles of the rule sections” in the Introduction, these rule titles are
commentarial and are not recited. The analysis of the commentarial rule-titles is only given here and when
a rule-title contains words that are not found in the rule itself.
yo: who; nom. sg. m. of rel. pron. ya(d).
pana: again, further, and, and now; a connective particle merely connecting and continuing the text. There is
no need to translate it here.
bhikkhu: a bhikkhu; nom. sg. m.
yo pana bhikkhu: if any bhikkhu, whatever bhikkhu, a bhikkhu who, Ñm: any bhikkhu, Norman: if any
bhikkhu, H: whatever monk; see above Nid.
Padabhájana: “Yo paná ti: yo yádiso yathá yutto yathá jacco yathá námo yathá gotto yathá sìlo yathá vihárì yathá
gocaro, thero vá navo vá majjhimo vá, eso vuccati yo paná ti.”:
“Yo pana: who, any/whatever (= yádisa; see PG § 112,3 & PED 553), according to connection, … birth, …
name, … clan, … virtue, … dwelling, according to area, a senior, a junior or one of middle standing , this is
called `yo pana.’” (Vin III 23).
The relative pron. yo) with the correlative dropped can have the meaning of “if any,” the latin si quis, as in
Dhp 76, Sn 96, and Th 282; see PG § 110,5, MW 844 s.v. yad, Norman, 1971, note, Norman, 2000, p.76 note, and
Norman, 1992, p 96 note. If a generalisation would be intended, i.e., “whatever,” then “yo koci” or “yo yo”
would be normally be used. It could also be adversative: “but a bhikkhu who” as in Dhp 10 and 190.
Hinüber suggests that “yo pana” here connects this rule, and all others, with the same introduction, back to
“yo pana bhikkhu” in the Nidána, by which the bhikkhu who conceals offences by remaining silent is
contrasted to the pure bhikkhu. During the recitation it is assumed that a bhikkhu is free from offences and
does not listen with unconfessed offences, see Vin II 240. The recurring pana is thus, according to him, for the
sake of referring back to the statement in the Nidána; see Hinüber, 1999 p.49–50.
The Pátimokkha, however is not done only for bhikkhus who have fallen into offences and Hinüber
overlooks the purpose of the Pátimokkha recitation as a reminder for all bhikkhus, whether they have fallen
into offences or not.
Hinüber compares the form of the four akaraóìyá, Vin I 96 -97, to the four Párájikas and notes that the
akaraóìyá-form is “yo bhikkhu” instead of “yo pana bhikkhu.” There is also an indicative in the akaraóìyá instead
of an optative: “Yo bhikkhu methunaí dhammaí paþiseveti, …,” instead of “Yo pana bhikkhu methunaí dhammaí
paþiseveyya, …” The reason for this difference is that the akaraóìyá are commands, which start with an f.p.p.
while the Párájika rules, and the other rules in the Pátimokkha, are warnings to remind the bhikkhus of the
offences and their consequences, i.e., the punishment when an offence has been committed, assuming that the
bhikkhus are free from offences.
Not all rules start with: “yo pana … ” and Hinüber argues that some of the rules that start with a locative
might have their source in pre-Pátimokkha common-place samaóa conduct and might have been taken from a
proto Pátimokkha-version, a mátiká, a summary, see below @. For example NP 18 is found in the Cúlasìla
section of the Brahmajálasutta, D I 5, as “játarúparajatapaþiggahaóá paþivirato” (cf. Vin I 84); see Hinüber, 1999
Hinüber mentions that this NP 18 is also found as “játarúparajatapaþiggahaóe pácittiyaí“ in the section about
the Second-council in Vin II 307/Cv XII 2,9. According to him several Pátimokkha rules quoted there are in
the locative form, like the first Pácittiya rule: “sampajánamúsáváde pácittiyaí,” rather than starting with “yo
pana’” see Hinüber, 1999 p.33–38.
However, in the Cv XII it is an abbreviated form of this rule referring to an offence as when confessing for it is
given as an answer to “Kií ápajjatì ti”: “What (offence) does one commit?” (Answer): “A pácittiya that is
concerned with the acceptance of gold and silver.” So in the Cv the so-called locative of relation is intended;
see Syntax § 174 a. Hinüber, 1999 p.38–39 & 49–50, also notes that in the Párájika rules, in contrast to some
rules in other sections, the sentences are properly constructed. Yo should correlate with so, and in the Párájika
rules yo correlates with párájiko, (in the Nidána with assa), to get a proper relative clause, but in some of the Sd
and Pác rules the correlative word is lacking. For example in “Yo pana bhikkhu játarúparajataí uggaóheyya …,
pácittiyaí.” Hinüber overlooked that MW s.v. yad states that the correlative is sometimes dropped; cf.
Norman, 1992, note on p.282.
bhikkhúnaí: for the bhikkhus; dat. pl. m. of bhikkhu, cp. NP 23, could also be gen.: “of the bhikkhus.”
sikkhásájìvasamápanno: entered upon the training and livelihood, Ñm: having undertaken the bhikkhus’
training precepts and way of life, H: possessed of the training and mode of life for monks; adjective
qualifying bhikkhu. Bahubbìhi cpd. = sikkhá: training, training precept; f. fr. sikkhati (ƒsikkh + a): one trains
oneself. + sájìva: livelihood, living, living together; nt. = pref. sa: with, together + ájìva: livelihood. See MW
s.v. saíjìva. + samápanno: having undertaken, entered upon, endowed with; p.p. of samápajjati (saí + á +
ƒpad + ya).
sikkhásájìva: the training and way of livelihood, system of training, livelihood of training, training
livelihood; the Sp 243 takes it as a dvanda cpd: “Sikkhañ-ca sájìvañ-ca samápannattá,” so do H and Ñm
However, it could also be a tappurisa-cpd. The commentary on the term in M-a II 205 and Pugg-a 236, which
is more concise and easier to quote than the Sp 245, is: “Bhikkhúnaí sikkhásájìvasamápanno ti: Yá bhikkhúnaí
adhisìlasaòkhátá sikkhá tañ-ca, yattha c'ete saha jìvanti ekajìviká sabhágavuttino honti taí bhagavatá
paññattasikkhápadasaòkhátaí sájìvañ-ca. Tattha sikkhanabhávena samápanno ti bhikkhu sikkhásájìvasamápanno ti
sikkhaí paripúrento sájìvañ-ca avìtikkammanto hutvá tadubhayaí upagato ti attho.“
“…: those trainings of bhikkhus that are reckoned as the higher-virtue, and that in which those (bhikkhus)
who are living together in these (training, and) due to having the same livelihood are behaving congenially,
(i.e.) that livelihood which is reckoned to be the Training precept made known by the Fortunate One. The
monk who has entered the training in that respect is “One who has entered the training and livelihood.” The
meaning is: fulfilling the training and not transgressing the livelihood he has undertaken both.”
sikkhaí: training; acc. sg. f. of the above.
appaccakkháya: not having rejected, refused, repudiated, H: not disavowing, Ñm: disclaimed. Traditionally
called a “na-nipáta-pubba-kammadháraya”: “a kammadháraya in which the preceding word is the particle na.”;
Duroiselle, 1906, p.166. Cf. anádá, NP 13, and anágata in NP 28. = neg. pref. a-: not+ paccakkháya: having
rejected; the absolutive of paccakkháti (pati + á + ƒkhá + a): repudiates; cf. BD I 40 n. 2.
dubbalyaí: incapability, weakness, inability; acc. sg. nt. = dur-: difficult, hard, bad; prefix + balya = bala:
strength + abstract suffix -ya. The doubling of the initial b of balya is due to an assimilation with the final r of
dur-, as the consonant combination rb does not occur in Pá¿i. It is spelt as dubballa in the compound
jigacchádubballa in M I 13 (also in Be), and at A IV 456 (Ee) a Burmese and a Sinhalese manuscript read
sikkhádubballáni instead of -dubbalyáni. Often the consonant-combination -ly- is assimilated to -ll-, see PG § 52.5
and the note on Dhp 1–2 in Norman, 2000.. Thus dubbalya might be a later Sanskritisation; see note on
-maggappaþipannassa at NP 16 and ávikareyya in the Nid. Cf. dubbaca at Sd 12.
anávikatvá: not having disclosed; Kammadháraya cpd. abs. of ávikaroti, see Nid + neg. pref. an-, the cpd form
of a- before vowels.
methunaí: related to sexual intercourse, coitus, copulation; adjective qualifying dhammaí.
dhammaí: act, practice, conduct, matter, thing; acc. sg. m. The term dhamma is here best translated as “act`,
see also Sd 4: “… etena dhammena paricareyya … ”: “one who should minister with this act,” Pác 53:
hassadhamma: the act of amusement ,” and Pác 68: antaráyika dhamma: act which is obstructive.
methunaí dhammaí: the act of sexual intercourse, coitus.
paþiseveyya: Ñm: should engage in, H: indulge in, practice, pursue; 3 sg. opt. of paþisevati (paþi + ƒsev + a),. =
directional pref. paþi: towards, after + sevati: follows, associates, serves. Cf. paþisevato at Pác 68.
antamaso: even so much as, even; indecl. Originally an ablative of anta: end, extreme (cf. Sd 5, NP 27).
tiracchánagatáya: with a female animal, literally: “one gone to the female horizontal state”; ins. sg. f. =
tiracchána: horizontal; a synonym for an animal since it moves with its body horizontal to the ground. +
gatáya: gone; p.p. of gacchati, “one goes”, declined as an ins. sg. f. in –á. The figurative meaning here is:
“having gone into a state of being”; see PED 242. A female animal is given in the rule, but the Suttavibhaòga
also includes male animals. Compare the Bhikkhunì-Pátimokkha's first Párájika rule that has the opposite
gender: tiracchánagatena: “with a masculine animal.”
Tiracchánagata is often used as an adjective qualifying páóa: a living being; e.g. S III 152; see PED 303. In the
Padabhájana it is explained as an adjective too: tiracchánagatitthiyá pi. Cf. tiracchánagatapurisa &
tiracchánagatapaóðaka at Vin III 28. However, here it appears to be a noun and elsewhere in the Vinaya it is
also used in that way, e.g. “gadrabho’si tiracchánagato’si” at Vin IV 7 (Cf. Vin III 76 & 122).
Má-L: tiryagyonigatáyamapi; PrMoMá-L p.6, BV 76. The Má-L Bhikåunì rule has tiragyonigatenápi; BV 76 & 79.
Sa: tìragyonigatayápi; PrMoSa p.163.
pi: just, even; emph. particle. For this sense of pi/api; cf. NP 3 & 16.
párájiko: disqualified, one who is disqualified, excluded, deprived, debarred, deposed, Ñm: defeated, H: one
who is defeated, CDPL 333: deserving expulsion; see above. Adjective qualifying an unexpressed “bhikkhu.”
This part of the rule is the main clause of the sentence; see IP p.71. In this main clause the correlative pronoun
so to the relative yo in the preceding subordinate relative clause is unexpressed: “Yo pana bhikkhu …, so
bhikkhu párájiko hoti asaíváso.” In the next rules the correlative word is expressed by ayaí.
Note that párájika is not a past participle, but there is no other suitable way of rendering it in English other
than by a past participle. The similes given in the Padabhájana, the verse in the Parivára, and the explanation
in the Commentary on the meaning of párájika involve past participles. Further, it appears to be a past
participle by implication because it comes after some action has taken place. For past participles used as
nouns, see Norman's note on Dhp 104 in Norman, 2000..
hoti: he is; 3 sg. pres. ind. of bhavati; see above Nid.
asaíváso: not in communion, H & Ñm: not in communion, not living with, not associated; adjective. = neg.
pref. a-: not + saívása: “communion,” der. fr. saívasati (saí + ƒvas + a): lives together with, associates (= pref.
saí: with + vasati: lives, dwells). The Padabhájana states: “Saíváso náma ekakammaí ekuddeso samasikkhatá eso
saíváso náma, so tena saddhií n'atthi, tena vuccati asaíváso”: “In communion: one single (legal) act, one
recitation, the state of equal training, this is `in communion`. He is not together with that, therefore it is said:
`not in communion.'”
Sp 260: “Saha vasanti etthá ti saíváso. Taí dassetuí saíváso námá ti vatvá, ekakamman-ti ádimáha. Tatráyaí
saddhií yojanáya vaóóaná catubbidham-pi saòghakammaí sìmáparicchinnehi pakatattehi bhikkhúhi ekato kattabbattá
ekakammaí náma. Tathá pañcavidho pi pátimokkhuddeso ekato uddisitabbattá ekuddeso náma. Paññattaí pana
sikkhápadaí sabbehi pi lajjìpuggalehi samaí sikkhitabbabhávato samasikkhatá náma. Ettha yasmá sabbe pi lajjino etesu
kammádìsu saha vasanti, na eko pi tato bahiddhá sandissati, tasmá táni sabbáni pi gahetvá, eso saíváso náma ti áha. So
ca vuttappakáro saíváso tena puggalena saddhií n'atthi, tena káraóena so párájiko puggalo asaíváso ti vuccatì ti.”
“`They dwell together' is `communion' (saívása). To show that, (the Padabhájana) having said
`Communion,' said `one single (legal) act,' etc. Herein this, together with the explanation of the
grammatical construction, is the fourfold (legal) community-act by regular bhikkhus limited by a
boundary, the state of having to be done by all together (or: `as one body,' ekato; see DP) is called `one
(legal) act.’ In that manner the five-fold (legal) community-act including the recitation of the Disciplinary
Code is the state of having to be recited by all together is called “one single recitation.” The state of having
to train in the declared training precept by all conscientious persons equally is called 'state of equal
training.’ Herein, because all who are conscientious live together in these (legal) acts, etc., not even one is
seen outside of it, therefore having taken/comprehended them all, this is called `communion,' is said. And
there is no communion in the manner said above together with that person. Therefore the disqualified
person is said to be `not in communion.'”
[Pár 2: Adinnádánasikkhápadaí]
Yo pana bhikkhu gámá vá araññá vá adinnaí theyyasaòkhátaí148 ádiyeyya, yathárúpe adinnádáne rájáno
coraí gahetvá haneyyuí vá bandheyyuí vá pabbájeyyuí vá: “Coro`si, bálo`si, mú¿ho`si, 149 theno`sì ti,”
tathárúpaí bhikkhu adinnaí ádiyamáno; ayam-pi párájiko hoti, asaíváso.
[The training precept on the taking of what has not been given]
If any bhikkhu should take [what has] not been given from a village or wilderness-area, which is
reckoned as theft, [and] the taking of what has not been given [is] of the kind [that] on account of [it]
kings, having caught the robber, would physically punish or imprison or banish [him, saying]: “You are a
robber! You are a fool! You are insane! You are a thief!,” a bhikkhu taking [what has] not been given of
such a kind, is also disqualified, not in communion.
adinnádánasikkhápadaí: the training precept on the taking of what has not been given; nom. sg. nt. See
methunadhammasikkhápadaí at Pár 1 above.
yo pana bhikkhu: whatever bhikkhu; see discussion at Pár 1 above.
gámá: from a village; abl. sg. m.
vá: or; disjunctive indecl. particle; vá … vá …: either… or…
araññá: from a wilderness-area, forest; abl. sg. nt. of arañña, fr. araóa: remote + abstract suffix -ya. The
description in the Padabhájana indicates that “forest` is not sufficient to cover the meaning of arañña and that
“wilderness” is more appropriate: “araññaí náma þhapetvá gámañ-ca gámupacárañ-ca avasesaí araññaí náma”:
“an arañña: having excepted a village and the surrounding of a village, the rest is called “arañña.”
adinnaí: that which is not given; acc. sg. nt.; kammadháraya cpd. = neg. pref. a- + dinna: given, p.p. of dadáti
(ƒdá + a; the root is reduplicated and the reduplicated syllable is in a weak form; see IP p.352.) used as a noun;
cf. Pác 40.
theyyasaòkhátaí: in a way which is reckoned as theft, … reckoned as (taking) by theft, … , H: by means of
theft, Ñm: with intent to steal, Norman: in a way which is called theft. It could be an instrumental tappurisa
cpd (see IP p.78) used in acc. sg. nt. as an adverb of manner qualifying ádiyeyya, see below, meaning
“reckoned as (taking) by theft.” It could also be a comparative kammadháraya cpd made up of two nouns
(Cf. seþþhasammata: “agreed upon as the best”; A II 75.) used as an adverb; see Perniola, Pali Grammar, § 130,c
and 132. As a comparative kammadháraya theyyasaòkháta would mean: “reckoned as theft.”
vasalo iti. ”: “Whether in the village or in the wilderness, he who takes by theft what is not given (and which
is) a belonging of others, know that one as an outcaste.” (See Norman's note on this verse in GD, esp. on
theyyá as ins. sg. in -á.) , S I 23: “bhuttaí theyyena tassa taí,” A I 129: “Theyyena kúþakammena … .” M I 268: “…
dinnádayì … athenena … viharati.” Vim 131 (p. 16). “Páóátipátá viratá, … theyyá ca aticárá ca … . S I 204
“Ekaògam-etaí theyyánaí … ”
148 G, V: saíkhátaí.
149 Mm Se, BhPm 1, V: mu¿ho.