4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦
Elders’ - sayings
theravāda: the doctrine of the Theras; the Southern Buddhism. (m.)
The name given to the Buddhist Canon as compiled by the Elders at the Rājagaha Council (Mhv.iii.40).
It was considered the most orthodox; from it seventeen other schools branched off from time to time in later ages, as a result of schisms in the Order (Mhv.v.1f).
The followers of Theravādā are called Theravādins (E.g., Cv.xxxviii.37) and their succession, Theravamsa (E.g., Cv.lii.46; liv.46).
Thera [Vedic sthavira. Derivation uncertain. It may come from sthā in sense of standing over, lasting (one year or more), cp. thāvara old age, then "old=venerable"; (in meaning to be compared w. Lat. senior, etc from num. sem "one"=one year old, i. e. lasting over one and many more years). Cp. also vetus=Gr. e)/tos year, E. wether, one year old ram, as cpd. w. veteran old man. Or it may come from sthā in der. *stheṷā in sthūra (sthūla: see etym. under thūla) thus, "strong venerable"] t.t. only used with ref. to the bhikkhus of Gotama Buddha's community. -- (a) (adj.) senior Vin i.47, 290 (th. bhikkhū opp. navā bh.), 159 (th bhikkhu a senior bh. opp. to navaka bh. a novice), 187 ii.16, 212. Therânutherā bhikkhū seniors & those next to them in age dating not from birth, but from admission to the Order). Three grades are distinguished thera bh., majjhima bh., nava bh., at D ;i.78. -- See also A ii.23, 147, 168; v.201, 348; D iii.123 sq., 218; Dh 260, 261. In Sangha -- thera, used of Bhikkhus not senior in the Order, the word thera means distinguished Vin ii.212, 303. In Mahāthera the meaning, as applied to the 80 bhikkhus so called, must also have some similar meaning Dīpv iv.5 Psalms of the Brethren xxxvi. J v.456. At A ii.22 it is said that a bhikkhu, however junior, may be called thera on account of his wisdom It is added that four characteristics make a man a thera -- high character, knowing the essential doctrines by heart, practising the four Jhānas, and being conscious of having attained freedom through the destruction of the mental intoxications. It is already clear that at a very early date, before the Anguttara reached its extant shape, a secondary meaning of thera was tending to supplant that of senior -- that is, not the senior of the whole Order, but the senior of such a part of the Sangha as live in the same locality, or are carrying out the same function. -- Note. thera in thero vassiko at S iv.161 is to be read tero -- vassiko.
-- gāthā hymns of senior bhikkhus, N. of a canonical book, incorporated in the Khuddaka -- Nikāya. Theratara very senior, oppd to navatara, novice D ii.154 -- vāda the doctrine of the Theras, the original Buddhist doctrine M i.164; Dpvs iv.6, 13.
vāda: theory; saying; creed controversy. (m.)
Vāda [fr. vad: see vadati; Vedic vāda (not in RV!), in meaning of "theory, disputation" only in Class. Sk. <-> The relation of roots vac: vad is like E. speak: say but vāda as t. t. has developed quite distinctly the specified meaning of an emphatic or formulated speech assertion or doctrine] 1. speaking, speech, talk, nearly always -- ˚, e. g. iti˚; hearsay, general talk M. i.133 S v.73; A ii.26; kumāraka˚; child -- talk or childish talk i. e. in the manner of talking to a child S ii.218 sq. cori˚; deceitful talk PvA 89 (so read with v. l. for T bheri˚); dhammika˚; righteous speech A v.230; musā˚ telling lies, false speech A i.129; ii.141; iv.401; PvA 15 See under musā. -- adj. ( -- ˚) speaking up for, proclaiming, advertising D i.174 (sīla˚, paññā˚ etc.); Sn 913 (nivissa˚ dogmatist); A i.287 (kamma˚, kiriya˚, viriya˚) -- vādaŋ bhindati to refute a speech, to make a view discrepant (cp. bhinna -- vāda under 4!) SnA 45 (Māravādaŋ bh.).
2. what is said, reputation, attribute characteristic Sn 859 (but SnA 550=nindā -- vacana) J i.2 (jāti˚ genealogy, cp. D i.137). See also cpd. ˚patha
3. discussion, disputation, argument, controversy dispute Sn 390, 827 (also as adj. hīna˚); DhA iii.390 Vin iv.1; Mhvs 4, 42 (sutvā ubhinnaŋ vādaŋ). -- 4 doctrine, theory put forth, creed, belief, school, sect SnA 539 sq.; in cpds.: ācariya˚; traditional teaching Miln 148; also "heterodoxy" Mhbv 96, cp. Dpvs v.30 uccheda˚; annihilistic doctrine Nd1 282: see under uccheda; thera˚; the tradition of the Theras, i. e. the orthodox doctrine or word of Gotama Buddha Mhvs 5, 2; 33, 97 sq.; Dpvs v.10, 14 (theravādo aggavādo ti vuccati), 51 (17 heretical sects, one orthodox, altogether 18 schools); dhuta˚; (adj.) expounding punctiliousness Vism 81 (=aññe dhutangena ovadati anusāsati). See under dhuta; bhinna˚; heretical sect (lit. discrepant talk or view) Dpvs v.39, 51 (opp. abhinnaka vāda) sassata˚; an eternalist Ps i.155.
-- ânuvāda the trsln of this phrase (used as adj.) at S iii.6 (see K.S. iii.7) is "one who is of his way of thinking." all kinds of sectarian doctrines or doctrinal theses D i.161; iii.115; S iii.6; iv.51, 340, 381; v.7 A iii.4; Nett 52. -- kāma desirous of disputation Sn 825 -- khitta upset in disputation, thrown out of his belief Vin iv.1=DhA iii.390. -- patha "way of speech," i. e signs of recognition, attribute, definition Sn 1076 (expld dogmatically at Nd2 563); A ii.9. -- sattha the science of disputation, true doctrine SnA 540. -- sīla having the habit of, or used, to disputes Sn 381.