-- I. Etymology. Although nir+vā "to blow". (cp. BSk. nirvāṇa) is already in use in the Vedic period (see nibbāpeti), we do not find its distinctive application till later and more commonly in popular use, where vā is fused with vṛ;
in this sense, viz. in application to the extinguishing of fire, which is the prevailing Buddhist conception of the term. Only in the older texts do we find references to a simile of the wind and the flame;
but by far the most common metaphor and that which governs the whole idea of nibbāna finds expression in the putting out of fire by other means of extinction than by blowing, which latter process rather tends to incite the fire than to extinguish it. The going out of the fire may be due to covering it up, or to depriving it of further fuel, by not feeding it, or by withdrawing the cause of its production. Thus to the Pali etymologist the main reference is to the root vṛ;
(to cover), and not to vā (to blow). This is still more clearly evident in the case of nibbuta (q. v. for further discussion). In verbal compn. nis+vā (see vāyati) refers only to the (non
-- emittance of an odour, which could never be used for a meaning of "being exhausted";
moreover, one has to bear in mind that native commentators themselves never thought of explaining nibbāna by anything like blowing (vāta), but always by nis+vana (see nibbana) For Bdhgh's defn of nibbāna see e. g. Vism 293
-- The meanings of n. are: 1. the going out of a lamp or fire (popular meaning).
2. health, the sense of bodily well
-- being (probably, at first, the passing away of feverishness, restlessness).
3. The dying out in the heart of the threefold fire of rāga, dosa & moha;
-- will & stupidity (Buddhistic meaning). ;
<-> 4. the sense of spiritual well
-- being, of security, emancipation victory and peace, salvation, bliss.
II. Import and Range of the Term. A. Nibbāna is purely and solely an ethical state, to be reached in this birth by ethical practices, contemplation and insight It is therefore not transcendental. The first and most important way to reach N. is by means of the eightfold Path, and all expressions which deal with the realisation of emancipation from lust, hatred and illusion apply to practical habits and not to speculative thought. N is realised in one's heart;
to measure it with a speculative measure is to apply a wrong standard.
-- A very apt and comprehensive discussion of nibbāna is found in F. Heiler, "Die buddhistische Versenkung" (München2 1922), pp. 36
-- 42, where also the main literature on the subject is given.
-- N. is the untranslatable expression of the Unspeakable, of that for which in the Buddha's own saying there is no word, which cannot be grasped in terms of reasoning and cool logic, the Nameless Undefinable (cp. the simile of extinction of the flame which may be said to pass from a visible state into a state which cannot be defined. Thus the Saint (Arahant) passes into that same state, for which there is "no measure" (i. e. no dimension): "atthangatassa na pamāṇam atthi . . . yena naŋ vajju: taŋ tassa n' atthi" Sn 1076. The simile in v. 1074: "accī yathā vāta
-- vegena khitto atthaŋ paleti, na upeti sankhaŋ evaŋ munī nāmakāyā vimutto atthaŋ paleti, na upeti sankhaŋ"). Yet, it is a reality, and its characteristic features may be described, may be grasped in terms of earthly language, in terms of space (as this is the only means at our disposal to describe abstract notions of time and mentality);
e. g. accutaŋ ṭhānaŋ, pāraŋ amataŋ padaŋ, amata (& nibbāna
-- ) dhātu.
-- It is the speculative, scholastic view and the dogmatising trend of later times, beginning with the Abhidhamma period which has more and more developed the simple, spontaneous idea into an exaggerated form either to the positive (i. e. seeing in N. a definite ;
state or sphere of existence) or the negative side (i. e. seeing in it a condition of utter annihilation). Yet its sentimental value to the (exuberant optimism of the) early Buddhists (Rh. Davids, Early Buddhism, p. 73) is one of peace and rest, perfect passionlessness, and thus supreme happiness As Heiler in the words of R. Otto (Das Heilige etc. 1917;
quoted l. c. p. 41) describes it, "only by its concept Nirvāna is something negative, by its sentiment however, a positive item in most pronounced form.
-- We may also quote Rh. Davids' words: "One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pāli poetry and prose lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the B. faith. Many are the pet names, the poetic epithets, bestowed upon it, each of them
-- for they are not synonyms
-- emphasising one or other phase of this many
-- sided conception
-- the harbour of refuge, the cool cave, the island amidst the floods, the place of bliss, emancipation, liberation, safety the supreme, the transcendental, the uncreated, the tranquil, the home of ease, the calm, the end of suffering, the medicine for all evil, the unshaken, the ambrosia the immaterial, the imperishable, the abiding, the further shore, the unending, the bliss of effort, the supreme joy, the ineffable, the detachment, the holy city, and many others. Perhaps the most frequent in the B. texts is Arahantship, ʻ the state of him who is worthy ʼ;
and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the ʻ dying out, ʼ that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins
-- sensuality, ill
-- will, and stupidity (Saŋyutta iv.251, 261), (Early Buddhism pp. 72, 73.) And Heiler says (p. 42 l. c.): "Nirvāna is, although it might sound a paradox in spite of all conceptional negativity nothing but ʻ eternal salvation, ʼ after which the heart of the religious yearns on the whole earth."
The current simile is that of fire, the consuming fire of passion (rāg
-- aggi), of craving for rebirth, which has to be extinguished, if a man is to attain a condition of indifference towards everything worldly, and which in the end, in its own good time, may lead to freedom from rebirth altogether, to certain and final extinction (parinibbāna).
-- Fire may be put out by water, or may go out of itself from lack of fuel. The ethical state called Nibbāna can only rise from within. It is therefore in the older texts compared to the fire going out, rather than to the fire being put out. The latter point of view, though the word nibbāna is not used, occurs in one or two passages in later books. See J i.212;
Miln 346, 410;
Sdhp 584. For the older view see M i.487 (aggi anāhāro nibbuto, a fire gone out through lack of fuel);
Sn 1094 (akiñcanaŋ anādānaŋ etaŋ dīpaŋ anāparaŋ Nibbānaŋ iti);
S i.236 (attadaṇḍesu nibbuto sādānesu anādāno);
S ii.85 (aggikkhandho purimassa upādānassa pariyādānā aññassa ca anupāhārā anāhāro nibbāyeyya, as a fire would go out, bereft of food because the former supply being finished no additional supply is forthcoming);
-- upādāno devānaŋ indo na parinibbāyati, the king of the gods does not escape rebirth so long as he has within him any grasping S iv.102;
pāragū sabbadhammānaŋ anupādāya nibbuto A i.162;
pāragato jhāyī anup˚ nibbuto, a philosopher freed, without any cause, source, of rebirth A iv.290 (etc., see nibbuta). dāvaggi
-- nibbānaŋ the going out of the jungle fire J i.212;
aggi nibbāyeyya, should the fire go out M i.487;
aggikkhandho nibbuto hoti the great fire has died out Miln 304;
nibbuto ginī my fire is out Sn 19. The result of quenching the fire (going out) is coolness (sīta);
and one who has attained the state of coolness is sītibhūta. sītibhūto 'smi nibbuto Vin i.8;
sītibhūto nirūpadhi, cooled, with no more fuel (to produce heat) Vin ii.156;
nicchāto nibbuto sītibhūto (cp. nicchāta) A ii.208;
v.65 anupādānā dīpacci viya nibbutā gone out like the flame of a lamp without supply of fuel ThA 154 (Ap 153).
-- nibbanti dhīrā yath' âyaŋ padīpo the Wise go out like the flame of this lamp Sn 235. This refers to the pulling out of the wick or to lack of oil, not to a blowing out;
cp. vaṭṭiŋ paṭicca telapadīpo jāleyya S ii.86;
Th 2, 116 (padīpass' eva nibbānaŋ vimokkho ahu cetaso). The pulling out of the wick is expressed by vaṭṭiŋ okassayāmi (=dīpavaṭṭiŋ ākaḍḍhemi ThA 117) cp. on this passage Pischel, Leben & Lehre des Buddha;
Mrs. Rh. Davids, Buddhism 176;
Neumann Lieder 298). pajjotass' eva nibbānaŋ like the going out of a lamp S i.159≈.
B. Since rebirth is the result of wrong desire (kāma kilesa, āsava, rāga etc.), the dying out of that desire leads to freedom & salvation from rebirth and its cause or substratum. Here references should be given to (1) the ;
fuel in ethical sense (cp. A 1: aggi);
(2) the aims to be accomplished (for instance, coolness=peace) (3) the seat of its realisation (the heart);
(4) the means of achievement (the Path);
(5) the obstacles to be removed.
1. Fuel=cause of rebirth & suffering ;
āsāva (intoxications). khīṇāsavā jutimanto to loke parinibbutā the wise who are rid of all intoxications are in this world the thoroughly free S v.29;
sāvakā āsavānaŋ khayā viharanti A iv.83;
kodhaŋ pahatvāna parinibbiŋsu anāsavā (are completely cooled) A iv.98 āsavakhīṇo danto parinibbuto Sn 370;
saggaŋ sugatino yanti parinibbanti anāsavā those of happy fate go to heaven, but those not intoxicated die out Dh 126 nibbānaŋ adhimuttānaŋ atthangacchanti āsavā Dh 226 āsavānaŋ khayā bhikkhu nicchāto parinibbuto It 49 vimutti
-- sañchanno parinibbissati anāsavo Th 1, 100.
-- kāmā (cravings) nikkāmo nibbano Nāgo Sn 1131.
-- (nibbāna) vice (only in certain commentaries). kilesa
-- nibbānass' âpi anupādā parinibbānass' âpi santike DhA i.286;
upādānaŋ abhāvena anupādiyitvā kilesa
-- nibbānena nibbutā DhA iv.194.
-- nibbidā (disenchantment). Nibbānaŋ ekanta
-- nibbidāya virāgāya etc. saŋvattati S ii.223;
nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe nibbānaŋ attano Sn 940.
-- rāga virāgo nirodho nibbānaŋ S i.136≈;
desento virajaŋ dhammaŋ nibbānaŋ akutobhayan S i.192;
yo rāgakkhayo (dosa˚ . . . moha˚ . . .): idaŋ vuccati nibbānaŋ S iv.251, same of Amata S ;
-- vinodanaŋ nibbānapadaŋ accutaŋ Sn 1086;
kusalo ca jahati pāpakaŋ rāgadosamoha
-- kkhayā parinibbuto Ud 85;
ye 'dha pajahanti kāmarāgaŋ bhavarāgânusayañ ca pahāya parinibbānagatā Vv 5324.
-- vana sabba
-- saŋyojan' atītaŋ vanā nibbānaŋ āgataŋ A iii.346;
nikkhantaŋ vānato ti nibbānaŋ KhA 151;
-- vānâbhāvato nibbānaŋ SnA 253.
2. Aims: khema (tranquillity). ātāpī bhikkhu nibbānāya bhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya It 27;
ajaraŋ amaraŋ khemaŋ pariyessāmi nibbutiŋ J i.3;
acala (immovable, not to be disturbed). patto acalaṭṭhānaŋ Vv 514;
accuta (stable) patthayaŋ accutaŋ padaŋ S iii.143;
-- vinodanaŋ nibbānapadaŋ accutaŋ Sn 1086. nekkhamma (renunciation, dispassionateness). vanā nibbānaŋ āgataŋ kāmehi nekkhammarataŋ A iii.346.
-- pāragū (victor). pāragū sabbadhammānaŋ anupādāya nibbuto A i.162 (cp A iv.290 with tiṇṇo pāragato).
-- santipada (calm, composure). santī ti nibbutiŋ ñatvā Sn 933;
santimaggaŋ eva brūhaya nibbānaŋ sugatena desitaŋ Dh 285 s.=acala VvA 219.
-- samatha (allayment, quietude) sabbasankhārasamatho nibbānaŋ S i.136≈.
-- sotthi (welfare). saccena suvatthi hotu nibbānaŋ Sn 235.
3. The Heart: (a) attā (heart, self). abhinibbut
-- atto Sn 456;
thiṭatto frequent, e. g. parinibbuto ṭh˚;
Sn 359 danto parinib˚ ṭh˚;
-- (b) citta (heart). apariḍayhamāna
-- citto SnA 347 (for abhinibbutatto Sn 343)
-- (c) hadaya (heart) nibbānaŋ hadayasmiŋ opiya S i.199;
mātuhadayaŋ nibbāyate J i.61;
nibbāpehi me hadaya
-- pariḷāhaŋ (quench the fever of my heart Miln 318.
-- (d) mano (mind). mano nibbāyi tāvade J i.27;
disvā mano me pasīdi Vv 5014.
4. The Path: dhīra. lokapariyāyaŋ aññāya nibbutā dhīrā tiṇṇā etc. S i.24;
nibbanti dhīrā . . . Sn 235 sabbâbhibhū dhīro sabbagantha
-- ppamocano It 122 <-> Recognition of anicca (transitoriness, see nicca). aniccasaññī . . . bhikkhu pāpuṇāti diṭṭh' eva dhamme nibbānaŋ A iv.353.
-- paññā. nibbānaŋ ev' ajjhagamuŋ sapaññā S i.22;
n' abhirato paññā S i.38. <-> paṇḍita & nipaka;
. anupubbena n˚ŋ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā A i.162;
nipakā asesaŋ parinibbanti It 93. <-> vijjā. bhikkhu paṇihitena cittena avijjaŋ bhecchati vijjaŋ uppādessati n˚ŋ sacchikarissati the bhikkhu with devout heart will destroy ignorance, gain right cognition & realise Nibbāna A ;
idh' aññāya parinibbāti anāsavo A iii.41;
sabb' āsave pariññāya parinibbanti anāsavā Vbh 426.
5. The Obstacles: gantha (fetter). nibbānaŋ adhigantabbaŋ sabba
-- pamocanaŋ S i.210;
It 104 similarly It 122 (see above). gabbhaseyyā (rebirth) na te punam upenti gabbhaseyyaŋ, parinibbānagatā hi sītibhūtā Vv 5324
-- nīvaraṇa (obstacles). pañca n˚ anibbāna
-- saŋvattanikā S v.97.
-- punabbhava (rebirth) nibbāpehi mahārāgaŋ mā ḍayhittho punappunaŋ S i.188 vibhavañ ca bhavañ ca vippahāya vusitavā khīṇapunabbhavo sa bhikkhu Sn 514;
-- nirodha nibbānaŋ S ii.117.
-- sankhārā (elements of life). sabbasankhāra
-- samatho nibbānaŋ S i.136;
N.=sabbasankhārā khayissanti A iii.443.
-- saŋyojanāni (fetters). sabbas
-- âtītaŋ vanā Nibbānaŋ āgataŋ A iii.346;
s. pahāya n˚ŋ sacchikarissati A iii.423;
saŋyojanānaŋ parikkhayā antarā
-- parinibbāyī hoti S v.69.
III. Nibbāna: its ethical importance and general characterisation. 1. Assurance of N. (nibbānass' eva santike, near N., sure of N.): S i.33 (yassa etādisaŋ yānaŋ . . . sa etena yānena n. e. s.: with the chariot of the Dhamma sure of reaching N.);
A ii.39 (abhabbo parihānāya n. e. s. impossible to fail in the assurance of final release, of one "catuhi dhammehi samannāgato, viz. sīla, indriyaguttadvāratā, bhojanamattaññutā jāgariyā");
iii.331 (id. with appamādagaru: ever active & keen);
ii.40=It 40 (id. with appamāda
-- 2. Steps and Means to N.: nibbāna
-- sacchikiriyā, attainment of N., is mangalaŋ uttamaŋ & to be achieved by means of ;
tapo, brahmacariyā and ariyasaccāna
-- dassanaŋ Sn 267.
-- brahmacariya (a saintly life) is n.
-- parāyanā (leading to N. S iii.189, cp. v.218;
also called n.
-- ogadhā (with similar states of mind, as nibbidā, virāgo, vimutti) ibid. A ii.26=It 28, cp. It 29 (nibbān'
-- gāminaŋ b˚ŋ). The stages of sanctification are also discussed under the formula "nibbidā virāgo vimutti . . vimuttasmiŋ vimuttaŋ iti ñāṇaŋ hoti: khīṇā jāti etc. (i. e. no more possibility of birth) S ii.124=iv.86. <-> dhamma: Buddha's teaching as the way to N. "dhammavaraŋ adesayi n.
-- gāmiŋ paramaŋ hitāya Sn 233;
ahaŋ sāvakānaŋ dhammaŋ desemi sattānaŋ visuddhiyā . . . n˚assa sacchikiriyāya A v.194, cp 141;
-- ñāṇaŋ pacchā nibbāne ñāṇan ti S ii.124.
-- magga: Those practices of a moral & good life embraced in the 8 fold Noble Path (ariyamagga) Sace atthi akammena koci kvaci na jīyati ;
nibbānassa hi so maggo S i.217;
ekāyano ayaŋ maggo sattānaŋ visuddhiyā . . . N˚assa sacchikiriyāya D ii.290;
S v.167, 185;
bhāvayitvā sucimaggaŋ n˚
-- gāminaŋ . . . Vbh 426;
ādimhi sīlaŋ dasseyya, majjhe maggaŋ vibhāvaye, pariyosānamhi nibbānaŋ . . DA i.176.
-- gamanaŋ maggaŋ: tattha me nirato mano "my heart rejoices in the path to Nibbāna S i.186;
-- gāminī paṭipadā A iv.83 (the path to salvation). Cp. §§ 4 & 7.
3. The Search for N. or the goal of earnest endeavour. ārogya
-- paramā lābhā nibbānaŋ paramaŋ sukhaŋ, aṭṭhangiko ca maggānaŋ khemaŋ amata
-- gāminaŋ "N. is a higher bliss than acquisition of perfect health, the eightfold Path (alone of all leads to perfect peace, to ambrosia" M i.508, cp Dh 204 ("the fullest gain is for health etc.;
N. is the highest happiness" DhA iii.267). Similarly: khantī paramaŋ tapo titikkhā, n˚ŋ paramaŋ vadanti buddhā D ii.49=Dh 184;
n˚ŋ paramaŋ sukhaŋ: Dh 204=Sn 257=J iii.195;
id.: Dh 203;
jhānaŋ upasampajja . . okkamanāya n.˚assa A iv.111 sq.;
cp. 230 sq.;
kaṭuviyakato bhikkhu . . . ārakā hoti N˚ā A i.281;
n˚ŋ ajjhagamuŋ sapaññā S i.22;
devalokañ ca te yanti . . anupubbena n˚ŋ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā A i.162;
n˚ŋ abhikankhati S i.198;
abhipassati A i.147;
tiṇṇakathankatho visallo n.
-- âbhirato Sn 86;
bhikkhu bhabbo anuttaraŋ sītibhāvaŋ sacchikātuŋ . . . paṇītâdhimutto hoti ṇ
-- âbhirato ca A iii.435;
-- âbhirato . . . sabbadukkhā pamuccati S i.38;
-- ogadhaŋ brahmacariyaŋ vussati n.
-- parāyaṇaŋ n.
-- pariyosānaŋ S iii.189=v.218 n˚ŋ gavesanto carāmi (Bodhisat, J i.61). All means of conduct & all ideals of reason & intellect lead to one end only: Nibbāna. This is frequently expressed by var similes in the phrase ;
-- ninna, ˚poṇa, ˚pabbhāra, e. g S v.75=134=137=190;
A v.75, 134, 190, 244 291;
Vv 8442. Saddahāno arahataŋ dhammaŋ n.<-> pattiyā sussūsā labhate paññaŋ appamatto S i.214 Sn 186, cp. S i.48;
-- paṭisaŋyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandasseti S i.214=192=210;
Ud 80 n˚ŋ pariyesati A ii.247;
-- pariyosānā sabbe dhammā A v.107;
-- poṇaŋ me mānasaŋ bhavissati, saŋyojanā pahāṇaŋ gacchanti A iii.443;
odhunitvā malaŋ sabbaŋ patvā n.
-- sampadaŋ muccati sabba
-- dukkhehi: sā hoti sabbasampadā A iv.239;
nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe n˚ŋ attano Sn 940, cp. 1061.
-- 4. Some Epithets of Nibbāna: akutobhayaŋ A ii.24=It 122 accutaŋ padaŋ (careyya āditta
-- sīso va patthayaŋ a. p. S iii.143;
pattā te acalaṭṭhānaŋ yattha gantvā na socare Vv 514;
amataŋ A ii.247;
M iii.224 (Bhagavā atthassa ninnetā a ˚assa dātā);
Miln 319 Vv 6427 (apāpuranto a ˚assa dvāraŋ);
VvA 85 (a
-- rasa) Vv 5020 (amatogadha magga=nibb˚
-- gāminī paṭipadā) amosadhammaŋ Sn 758;
khemaŋ appaṭibhayaŋ S iv.175;
S i.189=Sn 454;
Th 2, 350 (˚ṭṭhāne vimuttā te patta te acalaŋ sukhaŋ);
M i.508 (+amatagāminaŋ) A ii.247 (yogakkhemaŋ anuttaraŋ);
same at A iii.294 It 27;
-- taṇhakkhaya Vv 735;
ṭhānaŋ dud- dasaŋ S i.136 (=sabba
dhuvaŋ (q. v.);
niccaŋ Kvu 121;
nekkhammaŋ A i.147 (˚ŋ daṭṭhu khemato . . . nibbānaŋ abhipassanto);
Vv 8442. sabba
-- pamocanaŋ (deliverance from all ties) S i.210;
It 222=A ii.24 yathābhūtaŋ vacanaŋ S iv.195;
yathāsukhaŋ (the Auspicious) A iv.415 sq.;
-- ) rāga vinodanaŋ Sn 1086;
rāgakkhayo (dosa˚, moha˚) S v.8;
rāgavinayo (dosa˚, moha˚) ibid., santi (calm, peace) Vv 5021=Sn 204 (chandarāga
-- viratto bhikkhu paññāṇavā ajjhagā amataŋ santiŋ nibbānapadaŋ accutaŋ);
VvA 219 (=acala);
santimaggaŋ eva brūhaya n˚ŋ Sugatena desitaŋ Dh 285=Nett 36;
sandiṭṭhikaŋ akālikaŋ etc. A i.158;
samo bhūmibhāgo ramaṇīyo S iii.109;
sassataŋ Kvu 34;
suvatthi Sn 235.
-- 5. N. is realisable in this world, i. e. in this life if it is mature (diṭṭhe va dhamme): S ii.18=115=iii.163=iv.141 (diṭṭha
A iv.353=358, cp. 454.
-- 6. Definitions with regard to the destruction of the causes or substrata of life (cp. above I.): taṇhāya vippahānena n˚ŋ iti vuccati S i.39=Sn 1109;
-- sankhārasamatho (calming down of all vital elements) Vin i.5 S i.136;
v.8, 110, 320, 354 akiñcanaŋ anādānaŋ etaŋ dīpaŋ anāparaŋ n˚ŋ iti nam brūmi jarāmaccu
-- parikkhayaŋ Sn 1094;
bhavanirodho n˚ŋ ti S ii.117;
-- kkhayo (dosa˚, moha˚ S iv.251=261;
virāgo nirodho n˚ŋ in typical & very freq. exposition at Nd;
2=S i.136≈. See also vana cp. the foll.: taṇhā
-- vānâbhāvato n˚ŋ SnA 253;
nikkhantaŋ vānato ti n˚ŋ KhA 151;
-- n ass' âpi anupādā parinibbānass' âpi santike yeva DhA i.286 (on Dh 32).
-- 7. N. as perfect wisdom and what is conducive to such a state (saŋvattati). The foll phrase is one of the oldest stereotype phrases in the Canon & very freq.;
it is used of all the highest means & attainments of conduct & meditation & may be said to mark the goal of perfect understanding & a perfect philosophy of life. It is given in 2 variations, viz. in a simple form as ;
"upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saŋvattati," with ref. to majjhimā paṭipadā at Vin i.10=S iv.331=v.421;
of satta bojjhangā at S v.80;
and in a fuller form as "ekanta
-- nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya etc. as above" at D i.189 (negative);
ii.251 (of brahmacariyaŋ), 285 iii.130 (sukhallikânuyogā, neg.) 136 (avyākataŋ, neg.) S ii.223 (brahmacariya);
v.82 (satta bojjhangā), 179 (satipaṭṭhānā), 255 (iddhipādā), 361 (ariyamagga), 438 A iii.83, 326 sq.;
-- Cp. n
-- saŋvattanika S v.97 (upekhāsambojjhanga);
Nd2 281 (neg. of tamo). <-> 8. N. as the opposite of rāga (passion, lust). Freq. is the combn of virāga nirodha nibbāna, almost used as three synonyms, thus at S ii.18;
Vin iii.20=111 A ii.118=iii.164=iv.423=v.8=Nd2 under Nibbāna A ii.34=It 88 (dhammānaŋ aggaŋ akkhāyati, madanimmadano pipāsa
-- vinayo ālaya
-- samugghāto vaṭṭûpacchedo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodha nibbānaŋ), cp Vin iii.20≈. Similarly S i.192 (Sugataŋ payirupāsati desentaŋ virajaŋ dhammaŋ nibbānaŋ akutobhayaŋ). <-> 9. Various Characterisations & Similes;
(cp. above II A 4 & 5). sukkâbhijātiko samāno akaṇhaŋ asukkaŋ n˚ŋ abhijayati D ;
A iii.384 sq.;
aniccā sabbe sankhārā dukkhā 'nattā ca sankhātā: nibbānañ c' eva paññatti anattā iti nicchayā Vin v.86. On anicca anattā in rel. to N. see also S iv.133 sq.;
A iv.353 dukkhato & sukhato n˚ŋ samanupassati A ;
iii.442 On comparison with a lamp see e. g. S i.159=D ii.157 Th 1, 906 (pajjotass' eva nibbānaŋ vimokkho cetaso ahū), A iv.3 (pajjotass' eva n. vimokkho hoti cetaso) Sn 235 (. . . te khīṇabījā avirūḷhichandā nibbanti dhīrā yathâyaŋ padīpo).
-- abhirata fond of N. (cp. III. 3) S i.38;
A iii.435 Sn 86 (visalla+);
-- ogadha merging into N. (of brahmacariya) S iii.189;
A ii.26=It 28;
Vbh 426 cp. amatogadha A v.107;
-- gamana (magga;
cp. III. 2 leading to N. D ii.223;
S i.186, 217;
(dhamma: S v.11;
-- dhātu the sphere or realm of N. always in phrase anupādisesāsaya n.
-- dhātuyā parinibbāyate Vin ii.239;
It 38, 121;
cp. rāgavinayo n.
-- dhātuyā adhivacanaŋ S v.8. See parinibbāyin;
-- ninna (+˚poṇa, ˚pabbhāra;
cp. III. 3) converging into N. A iii.443;
Vv 8442 & passim;
-- paṭisaññuta (dhammikathā;
cp. III. 2) relating or referring to N. S i.114=192=210;
-- patta having attained N. (diṭṭha
-- dhamma˚, see above III. 5) S ii.18=114 iii.163;
-- patti attainment of N. S i.48, 214=Sn 186
-- pada=Nibbāna (see pada 3) Sn 204.
-- pariyosāna ending in N. having its final goal in N. S iii.189;
v.218 A v.107;
-- saŋvattanika conducive to N.;
contributing toward the attainment of N. S v.97;
Nd2 281 (a˚);
cp above III. 7;
-- sacchikiriyā realisation of N. (identical with ñāṇa and constituting the highest ideal;
cp. above III. 2) Sn 267. Cp. also D ii.290;
A iii.423 v.141;
-- saññā perception of N. A iii.443;
-- sampatti successful attainment of N. Kh viii.13;
-- sampadā the blessing of the attainment of N. A iv.239.