4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦
thinking💭 & evaluation🕵️
V&V💭: vitakka & vicāra
Vitakka 💭 = directed thought.
Vicāra 🕵️ = the evaluation of that very same directed thought, not a separate train of thought (SN 46.3
Vicāra explores, inspects, discriminates, evaluates, ponders, scrutinizes, discerns, considers the very same thought initially fixed upon by vitakka.
Vitakka decides on a topic, then gives it to vicara to analyze it further, KN Pe 7.72
V&V are speech vocalization co-activities, MN 44
. You need to think and evaluate with V&V before coherent speech can be vocalized.
vitakka & vicāra in 1st Jhāna🌘 is intrinsically the same in 1st jhāna as it is outside of it, with 2 conditions.
1. The content of those thoughts, unlike ordinary V&V, must be kusala (skillful) related to Dharma (AN 6.73
, AN 6.74
, AN 6.75
1b. The content of the Dhamma vitakka in first jhāna, often is just the meditator mentally reciting the oral instructions of the Dhamma meditation topic they're about to do (SN 46.3
). For example, in 31asb🧟
body parts, even in
following canonical Abhidhamma and Abhidhamma commentary such as Vimt.
, one mentally recites the body parts (kesa, loma, ...) while
in first jhāna.
2. The thinking is attenuated. The intensity and frequency of vitakka is reduced to the point where it would not tire the body and/or block kāya-passaddhi (bodily pacification), pīti & sukha (rapture and pleasure) (MN 19
First jhāna j1🌘
is vocal silence, SN 36.11
, where speech ceases, but thoughts connected to Dhamma continue (MN 19
, MN 786.2.0
, MN 1253.10.3
, AN 8.30
Second jhāna j2🌗
is noble silence, 👑😶
, where V&V ceases, S&S🐘💭
In third jhāna j3🌖
does vipassana (AN 4.41
, AN 9.36
, MN 111
), a deeper version of first jhāna doing vipassana using V&V.
S&S and V&V correspond to sati and Dharma-vicaya of 7sb☀️
, SN 46.3
(right-resolve) precedes vitakka (thinking), but in most contexts involving jhāna you can treat them as equivalent (MN 117
, MN 78
Even in Vism. and Abhidhamma
V&V still means mental recitation of speech. After exiting 2nd jhāna, one mentally chants, 'earth [kasina], earth', to get into third jhāna.
V&V, jhana, nirvana
Suttas where disciples attain arahantship, stream entry, realizing nirvana while listening to Dhamma talk, and thinking about it with V&V.
AN 6.56 Phagguna sutta
KN Ud 7.1, KN Ud 7.2 Sariputta leads Bhaddhiya the dwarf to arahantship
KN Pe: Peṭakopadesa (pitaka disclosure): everything interesting it says about jhāna & samādhi
Vimt. chapter on 4 jhānas, 4 arupa attainments
Upekkha in the Jhānas, 7sb, 4bv. : Not just passive equanimity in Jhāna.
EBT Jhāna Vs. (VRJ) Vism. Redefinition
⛔🔗The one stop V&V shop, where errant views meet the chopping block
⛔ Wrong translations for V&V💭
✅ ☸EBT V&V💭
: vitakka & vicāra = directed-thought & evaluation
⛔ Vism. Redefinition V&V💭: applied-thought & sustained-thought (b.nanamoli)
⛔ Vism. Redefinition V&V💭: initial-application & sustained-application (u thittila,
Te Ab Vb 12
⛔ B.Sujato mistranslation of V&V💭: placing-the-mind & keeping-it-connected
⛔ B.Anālayo mistranslation of V&V💭: [directed] awareness and [sustained] contemplation
✅Relativity of ⛔Wrong, and the horse from Bodagosia
🔗 🏦 Bank of V&V: collection of unsorted articles
🔗 Seinfeld jokes about jhana, vitakka and vicara
🔗 vitakka in first jhana synopsis
roboman audio reading, 25min
Even animals use V&V💭 to communicate
V&V as vaci-sankhara, co-activities of speech, is not just an integral part of human oral tradition transmission, it’s a basic universal function of how intelligent animals communicate.
Chimpanzees, 🔗dogs intuitively use V&V.
🔗cats use V&V to save their human friends' lives.