4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

V&V💭

thinking💭 & evaluation🕵️


4👑☸EBpedia📚V&V💭     S&S🐘💭   8🌄   7🐘   🔝


V&V💭: vitakka & vicāra

Vitakka 💭 = directed thought.
Vicāra 🕵️ = the evaluation of that very same directed thought, not a separate train of thought (SN 46.3).
Vicāra explores, inspects, discriminates, evaluates, ponders, scrutinizes, discerns, considers the very same thought initially fixed upon by vitakka.
Vitakka decides on a topic, then gives it to vicara to analyze it further, KN Pe 7.72.
V&V are speech vocalization co-activities, MN 44. You need to think and evaluate with V&V before coherent speech can be vocalized.



V&V💭 in 1st Jhāna🌘

vitakka & vicāra in 1st Jhāna🌘 is intrinsically the same in 1st jhāna as it is outside of it, with 2 conditions.
1. The content of those thoughts, unlike ordinary V&V, must be kusala (skillful) related to Dharma (AN 6.73, AN 6.74, AN 6.75).
1b. The content of the Dhamma vitakka in first jhāna, often is just the meditator mentally reciting the oral instructions of the Dhamma meditation topic they're about to do (SN 46.3). For example, in 31asb🧟‍ body parts, even in non EBT following canonical Abhidhamma and Abhidhamma commentary such as Vimt., one mentally recites the body parts (kesa, loma, ...) while in first jhāna.
2. The thinking is attenuated. The intensity and frequency of vitakka is reduced to the point where it would not tire the body and/or block kāya-passaddhi (bodily pacification), pīti & sukha (rapture and pleasure) (MN 19).
First jhāna j1🌘 is vocal silence, SN 36.11, where speech ceases, but thoughts connected to Dhamma continue (MN 19, MN 786.2.0, MN 1253.10.3, AN 8.30).
Second jhāna j2🌗 is noble silence, 👑😶, where V&V ceases, S&S🐘💭 takes over.
In third jhāna j3🌖, S&S🐘💭 does vipassana (AN 4.41, AN 9.36, MN 111), a deeper version of first jhāna doing vipassana using V&V.
S&S and V&V correspond to sati and Dharma-vicaya of 7sb☀️, SN 46.3.
Sammā-saṅkappo 2💭 (right-resolve) precedes vitakka (thinking), but in most contexts involving jhāna you can treat them as equivalent (MN 117, MN 78).
Even in Vism. and Abhidhamma V&V still means mental recitation of speech. After exiting 2nd jhāna, one mentally chants, 'earth [kasina], earth', to get into third jhāna.

• explicit: every. single. reference. to vitakka in the suttas 🔗bl

🐎You can lead a horse to first jhāna

but you can't make him think.🐴💭

V&V💭 in 1st Jhāna🌘
Nij-Jhāna seems to function like a first jhāna with V&V
vicara & vicāra
How various English translators render V&V
Relativity of ⛔Wrong, and the horse from Bodagosia
• 🔗Audit: U Thittila mistranslation of V&V in Abhidhamma Vb first jhāna gloss | 🔗Even in redefinition, vitakka is thinking (featuring simile of doorstop)
L.S. Cousins, V&V in EBT and non EBT

Appendices

⛔B. Anālayo’s mistranslation of V&V
⛔B. Sujato’s mistranslation of V&V
Fallacy & Cognitive Bias
V&V💭 sutta anthology

☸Epilogue

V&V, jhana, nirvana

Suttas where disciples attain arahantship, stream entry, realizing nirvana while listening to Dhamma talk, and thinking about it with V&V.

Explicit V&V

AN 6.56 Phagguna sutta

Implied V&V

KN Ud 7.1, KN Ud 7.2 Sariputta leads Bhaddhiya the dwarf to arahantship


Related

KN Pe: Peṭakopadesa (pitaka disclosure): everything interesting it says about jhāna & samādhi
Vimt. chapter on 4 jhānas, 4 arupa attainments
Upekkha in the Jhānas, 7sb, 4bv. : Not just passive equanimity in Jhāna.
EBT Jhāna Vs. (VRJ) Vism. Redefinition


⛔ Wrong translations for V&V💭

✅ ☸EBT V&V💭: vitakka & vicāra = directed-thought & evaluation
⛔ Vism. Redefinition V&V💭: applied-thought & sustained-thought (b.nanamoli)
⛔ Vism. Redefinition V&V💭: initial-application & sustained-application (u thittila, Te Ab Vb 12 )
⛔ B.Sujato mistranslation of V&V💭: placing-the-mind & keeping-it-connected
⛔ B.Anālayo mistranslation of V&V💭: [directed] awareness and [sustained] contemplation

🔗The one stop V&V shop, where errant views meet the chopping block
Relativity of ⛔Wrong, and the horse from Bodagosia

misc.

🔗 🏦 Bank of V&V: collection of unsorted articles
🔗 Seinfeld jokes about jhana, vitakka and vicara
🔗 vitakka in first jhana synopsis roboman audio reading, 25min


Even animals use V&V💭 to communicate

V&V as vaci-sankhara, co-activities of speech, is not just an integral part of human oral tradition transmission, it’s a basic universal function of how intelligent animals communicate.
Chimpanzees, 🔗dogs intuitively use V&V.
🔗cats use V&V to save their human friends' lives.


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