4👑☸ Cattāri Ariya-saccaṃ 四聖諦

16 APS 🌬️ 😤 (Ānā-pāna-s-sati)

in-breath (&) out-breath remembering

4👑☸ →   STED →   16🌬️😤   🐘   🌄 (⤴)

SN 54.3 Suddhika

(0. preliminary steps )

[0.1] 🏞️ arañña-gato vā
[0.1] 🏞️ (to the) wilderness-(he)-went, or
🌲 rukkha-mūla-gato vā
🌲 (to the) tree-root-(he)-went, or
🏕️ suññā-(a)gāra-gato vā
🏕️ (to the) empty-dwelling-(he)-went, **
[0.2] nisīdati
[0.2] sits down
[0.3] 🧘 pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā
[0.3] 🧘 (into)-cross-leg-posture (he)-bends,
[0.4] 🏃📐 ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya
[0.4] 🏃📐 straightened body (he)-aspires (to),
[0.5] 🌬️😤 pari-mukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā.
[0.5] 🌬️😤 in-front [, as main priority], remembrance he-establishes.
[0.6] 🐘 So sato-va assasati,
[0.6] 🐘 He, Always-a-rememberer, breathes in;
Sato-va passasati
Always-a-rememberer, breathes out.

(1. 🏃 kāyā-(a)nu-passī)

Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti,
(1) long ** breathing-in, 'long (I) am-breathing-in' (he) discerns;
dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti;
long ** breathing-out, 'long (I) am-breathing-out' (he) discerns;
rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti,
(2) short ** breathing-in, 'short (I) am-breathing-in' (he) discerns;
rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti;
short ** breathing-out, 'short (I) am-breathing-out' (he) discerns;
🏃 ‘sabba-kāya-p-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(3) 🏃 '(the) entire-body: sensitive-to (it), (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
🏃 ‘sabba-kāya-p-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
🏃 (the) entire-body: sensitive-to (it), (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
🌊🏃 ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(4) 🌊🏃 'pacifying bodily-co-doing, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
🌊🏃 ‘passambhayaṃ kāya-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.
🌊🏃 pacifying bodily-co-doing, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.

(2. vedanā-(a)nu-passī)

😁 ‘Pīti-p-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(5) 😁 'rapture: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
😁 ‘pīti-p-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
😁 rapture: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
🙂 ‘sukhap-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(6) 🙂 'pleasure: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
🙂 ‘sukhap-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
🙂 pleasure: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
💭 ‘citta-saṅkhārap-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(7) 💭 'mental-co-doing: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
💭 ‘citta-saṅkhārap-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
💭 mental-co-doing: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
🌊💭 ‘passambhayaṃ citta-saṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(8) 🌊💭 'pacifying mental-co-doing, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
🌊💭 ‘passambhayaṃ citta-saṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.
🌊💭 pacifying mental-co-doing, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.

(3. cittā-(a)nu-passī)

‘Citta-p-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(9) '(the)-mind: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘citta-p-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
(the)-mind: -sensitive-to-it, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
😁 ‘abhip-pa-modayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(10) 😁 'abundantly-producing-mirth (in the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
😁 ‘abhip-pa-modayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
😁 'abundantly-producing-mirth (in the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
🌄 ‘samādahaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(11) 🌄 'undistract-ifying & lucid-ifying (the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
🌄 ‘samādahaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
🌄 undistract-ifying & lucid-ifying (the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
‘vimocayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(12) 'liberating (the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘vimocayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
liberating (the)-mind, (I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.

(4. ☸Dhammā-(a)nu-passī)

‘a-niccā-(a)nu-passī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati.
(13) 'im-permanence: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘A-niccā-(a)nu-passī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
im-permanence: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
‘vi-rāgā-(a)nu-passī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(14) 'dis-passion: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘vi-rāgā-(a)nu-passī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
Dis-passion: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
‘nirodhā-(a)nu-passī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(15) 'cessation: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘nirodhā-(a)nu-passī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
cessation: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.
‘paṭinissaggā-(a)nu-passī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,
(16) 'relinquishment: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-in.' (Thus he) trains.
‘paṭinissaggā-(a)nu-passī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.
relinquishment: -continuously-seeing (it, I) will-breathe-out.' (Thus he) trains.

What are 16🌬️😤 features?

cutting off vitakka/thoughts

KN Ud 4.1 Meghiya: shares same passage as AN 9.1

ambrosia, peaceful, sublime dwelling

SN 54.9 with beautiful simile of rainstorm that settles the dust (of vitakka)

Noble 👑, Brahma, pleasurable dwelling

SN 54.11 , SN 54.12 : 16APS has special status, the Buddha did this on his personal retreats, and seemed to really emphasize it. My impression is, there are 3 or 4 meditations that should be done almost all the time, you can do some combination of them simultaneously at times, or seamlessly shift between them according to need. But 16APS is probably the safest, the one that should be your home base and starting point before trying asubha or other challenging practices SN 54.9 .

Even last breath at death is known!

MN 62 near conclusion.

comparison of 4 popular meditation methods

How these 4 popular meditation methods differ in purpose, and how they can be combined synergistically.

✅EBT 16 APS

🔗🔊 ~5min pāli 🎙️Ven. Jiv. 🔗🔊 1 file

In Pāli Suttas

SN 54 Ānāpāna Saṃyutta: contains 20 suttas on the topic. This is the definitive 16 APS, and you should study these 20 suttas, in order, before reading MN 118, which is just a slightly embellished version of the SN 54 ananda suttas.
MN 62 : This sutta is particularly illuminating, it shows how 16 APS is combined with other meditation techniques simultaneously, such as 4 elements, 4bv, 31asb
MN 118 : This is probably the sutta people study most, and that's not a good idea. Instead, you should first master SN 46.3 , then SN 54.3 and SN 54.2 . MN 118 is just a combination of those 3 suttas, but it will be far easier to understand how it fits together if you study those 3 independently and understand them on their own terms. In particular, the ideas of SN 54.2 will not occur to you if you read MN 118 in isolation.
KN Ud 4.1 Meghiya: shares same passage as AN 9.1

The Buddha's commentary on 16 APS:

Direct EBT quotes that apply to these 16 APS.

pari-mukha:

In meditation context, always means "what's in front of you is your main priority."

Ānāpāna-smṛti in the Chinese Āgamas:

Scripture from 2 other EBT schools

✅ EBT compliant 16 APS interpretation

EBT compliant commentary for 16 APS: from non-EBT sources

🏃📐 ujuṃ kāyaṃ:

Exploring that in detail, plus 'how to' guide with proven practical tips.

Diguju Breath:

Combining 7sb's passaddhi-sambojjhanga with first 4 steps of 16APS to make the breath comfortable and gently straighten the spine naturally and sustainably.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu's books and articles on dhammatalks.org, especially "With Each and Every Breath"

Bhante Henepola Gunaratana: Beyond Mindfulness in Plain English, 2010 CE (from wisdom pub). The book is more broadly based on EBT Jhāna. 16 APS is one of the methods he discusses, but does not focus in detail on the 16 steps. His older published books and writings on Jhāna follow Vism. and is NOT EBT compliant, so be careful!

Ajahn Lee's Method 2: is a superb EBT compliant 16 APS interpretation. He does not use all the 16 APS pāli buzzwords. Also, following his teacher Ajahn Mun, he has preliminary practice of breath counting and "Buddho" to eliminate distractive thoughts. But aside from that, the essence of his 7 steps in Method 2 is Pure EBT 16 APS that takes you into Jhāna, 4 iddhi pāda and 6 abhiñña.

advice for beginners


EBT compliant 16 APS interpretation, with caveats

KN Ps 16 APS: This is considered canonical work in Theravada. It's the earliest commentary existing on 16 APS. Visuddhimagga considers the KN Ps as part of the Abhidhamma collection. It definitely shows several Ab hallmarks, like pedantic long lists of things and detailed analysis. But it offers very detailed and helpful information on the nature of body, feelings, mind in 16 APS.

Vimutti-magga 16 APS: Early Theravada Abhidhamma theory underlies all the medititative practices in Vimt. The nuts and bolts of the actual 16 APS practice described in Vimt. are EBT compliant, but some of the terminology will be scrambled and confusing, in their effort to harmonize with Abhidhamma redefinitions of important terms and concepts like body and feeling.

Dhyāna Samādhi Sutra 16 APS: Text composed between 400 and 500 CE. Author Kumarajiva was an Early Buddhist Bhikkhu who converted to Mahayana. While the Sutra itself has many Mahayana elements, several of the meditative practices described such as the 16 APS follow pretty close to a pure EBT interpretation.

⛔ Not EBT compliant

⛔ The Vism. (visuddhi-magga) interpretation of 16 APS is a completely different meditation than EBT 16 APS. Compare with Vimutti-magga, which also is based on Abhidhamma, and KN Ps, which is a precursor to both.
⛔ Ajahn Brahm (Brahmavamso), teaches anapana breath meditation that is basically the Vism. method without the underlying Abhidhamma.
Keep in mind, "Not EBT compliant", doesn't necessarily imply it's bad, or it doesn't accomplish its objective, which may or may not be different than the EBT. It just means it's different than the method taught by the Buddha in the EBT, following straightforward interpretation commonly accepted by objective and discerning people who have studied the issue extensively without bias.


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